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Incidence angle dependence of the statistical properties of C-band HH-polarization backscattering signatures of the Baltic Sea ice

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5 Author(s)
Makynen, M.P. ; theLaboratoiy ofSpace Technology, Helsinki Univ. of Technol., Espoo, Finland ; Manninen, A.T. ; Simila, M.H. ; Karvonen, J.A.
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Incidence angle dependence of three statistical parameters-the mean of the backscattering coefficient (σ°), standard deviation, and autocorrelation coefficient of texture (σT and ρT)-of the C-band horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarization backscattering signatures of the Baltic Sea ice are investigated using RADARSAT ScanSAR Narrow images and helicopter-borne Helsinki University of Technology Scatterometer (HUTSCAT) data. The analysis of the large amount of data shows that the relationship between the mean σ° in decibel scale and the incidence angle in the range from 19° to 46° is usually well described by a linear model. In general, the RADARSAT and HUTSCAT results agree with each other, and they are also supported by theoretical backscattering model calculations; the more deformed the ice, the smaller the slope between σ° and the incidence angle, and the higher the moisture content of snow or ice, the larger the slope. The derived σ° incidence angle dependencies can be used to roughly compensate the σ° incidence angle variation in the SAR images to help their visual and automated classification. The variability of σT and ρT with the increasing incidence angle is insignificant compared to the variability within each ice type. Their average changes with the incidence angle are so small that, in practice, their trends do not need to be compensated. The results of this study can be utilized when developing classification algorithms for the RADARSAT ScanSAR and ENVISAT HH-polarization Wide Swath images of the Baltic Sea ice.

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:40 ,  Issue: 12 )