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The problem of jointly controlling the data rates and transmit powers of users, so as to maximize throughput in cellular direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks is addressed. The multicode (MC)-CDMA system, where the processing gain of each code is fixed and high-rate users use multiple codes for transmission, and the variable gain (VG)-CDMA architectures are considered. The throughout maximization problem is formulated as a classical optimization problem, modeling the constraints arising from the data rate requirements and power budgets. Optimal strategies to maximize throughput in both systems are derived. While the MC-CDMA system has a simple optimal rate-power allocation algorithm, the VG-CDMA system has a more complex solution.