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Civil infrastructure provides the range of essential services generally necessary to support a nation's economy and quality of life - arguably entire economies rely on the ability to move goods, people, and information safely and reliably. Consequently, it is of the utmost importance to government, business, and the public at large that the flow of services provided by a nation's infrastructure continues unimpeded in the face of a broad range of natural and manmade hazards. From a comprehensive vulnerability assessment and hazard mitigation standpoint, it is necessary to look beyond the effects of an event on a single system and instead seek to understand the perturbed behaviors of a complex, "system of systems". Making our infrastructure systems inherently safer when stressed also will require more than just improved engineering and technology. The events of September 11 demonstrated that these complex systems also have critical institutional and human components that need to be understood and integrated into design and operational procedures.