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The memory system often determines a great deal about the behavior of an embedded system: performance, power, and manufacturing cost. A great many software techniques have been developed over the past decade to optimize software to improve these characteristics. Embedded software design and compilation can take advantage of two important facts: the hardware target is known; and we can spend more time and computational effort to optimize the software. This paper surveys techniques for optimizing memory behavior of embedded software and points to some future trends in the field.