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Highly parallel computer architectures and algorithms for speech analysis operations are surveyed. The classes of architectures considered include SIMD, skewed-SIMD, MIMD, and data flow machines, associative processors, and pipelined systolic and wavefront arrays. Parallel algorithms for digital filtering, FFTs, and linear predictive coding are summarized. System requirements are analyzed in terms of number and complexity of processors, memory requirements, and nature and complexity of inter-processor communications.