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Signal transmission is examined in the horizontal wavenumber domain. Two major applications have been advanced: (1) the separation of multipaths from CW data received on a single omni-directional hydrophone, and (2) passive depth and range localization from narrowband signals received on a single omnidirectional hydrophone. The multi-path separation is based upon the equivalence between ray angle and horizontal wavenumber and is accomplished by wavenumber filtering. The passive localization technique is based upon the acoustic source sweeping out a synthetic aperture and has been verified in ideal model simulations.