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The old cut and try methods of direct radiator loudspeaker system development have been minimized by the recent work of Australians Thiele, Small, and Benson. The operation of systems in the so-called low-frequency piston range where the wavelength is larger than the radiator is now quite predictable and predetermined. The Australians have contributed substantially to the storehouse of information that can aid and direct a systems designer. Well developed theory has been made available, permitting a designer to proceed from the specification of important end goals (such as efficiency, system size, low frequency limit, and power output) to a usable system with a minimum of empirical investigation. Applications of this theory to the design of several loudspeaker systems will be discussed.