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Recent developments in the application of controllable air ionization processes that apply dielectric-barrier discharge devices to generate nonthermal plasmas have led to applications for chemical and biological decontamination in indoor air environments. These include significant reductions in airborne microbials, neutralization of odors, and reductions of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Removal of very fine particulates (PMx) is also is enhanced by air ionization. The process of air ionization involves the electronically induced formation of small air ions, including reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide O2·-, the diatomic oxygen radical anion, which react rapidly with airborne VOC and PMx. The physics and chemistry of air ionization, and its utility for contributing to significant improvements in indoor air quality are discussed.