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This paper presents the implementation of an artificial-neural-network (ANN)-based real-time adaptive controller for accurate speed control of an interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) under system uncertainties. A field-oriented IPMSM model is used to decouple the flux and torque components of the motor dynamics. The initial estimation of coefficients of the proposed ANN speed controller is obtained by offline training method. Online training has been carried out to update the ANN under continuous mode of operation. Dynamic backpropagation with the Levenburg-Marquardt algorithm is utilized for online training purposes. The controller is implemented in real time using a digital-signal-processor-based hardware environment to prove the feasibility of the proposed method. The simulation and experimental results reveal that the control architecture adapts and generalizes its learning to a wide range of operating conditions and provides promising results under parameter variations and load changes.