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Activation time (AT) imaging from electrocardiographic (ECG) mapping data has been developing for several years. By coupling ECG mapping and three-dimensional (3-D) + time anatomical data, the electrical excitation sequence can be imaged completely noninvasively in the human heart. In this paper, a bidomain theory-based surface heart model AT imaging approach was applied to single-beat data of atrial and ventricular depolarization in two patients with structurally normal hearts. In both patients, the AT map was reconstructed from sinus and paced rhythm data. Pacing sites were the apex of the right ventricle and the coronary sinus (CS) ostium. For CS pacing, the reconstructed AT pattern on the endocardium of the right atrium was compared with the CARTO map in both patients. The localization errors of the origins of the initial endocardial breakthroughs were determined to be 6 and 12 mm. The sites of early activation and the areas with late activation were estimated with sufficient accuracy. The reconstructed sinus rhythm sequence was in good qualitative agreement with the pattern previously published for the isolated Langendorff-perfused human heart.
Date of Publication: Sept. 2002