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An 800 bit/s vector quantization linear predictive coding (LPC) vocoder has been developed. The recently developed LPC vector quantization theory is applied to reduce the bit rate for LPC coefficients coding by a factor of four. Branch search techniques and separation of voiced and unvoiced codebooks are applied for better algorithm efficiency. Differential coding is applied to reduce the bit rate for the pitch and gain parameters by one third. Formal subjective evaluation shows that the 800 bit/s vocoder preserves most of the intelligibility of an LPC system. It is also robust under different transmission error and acoustic conditions. Informal listening comparisons show the quality to be acceptable and sometimes very close to 2400 bit/s LPC speech. The computational cost of the 800 bit/s vocoder is equivalent to or even lower than the 2400 bit/s LPC-10. Compatibility with any LPC-10 vocoder is guaranteed because the 800 bit/s design only differs in the quantization and encoding algorithms. Further bit rate reduction can be achieved by removing frame to frame redundancy in the code.
Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:30 , Issue: 5 )
Date of Publication: Oct 1982