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The availability of multiple transmit antennas allows for two-dimensional channel codes that exploit the spatial transmit diversity. These codes were referred to as space-time codes by Tarokh et al. (see ibid., vol.44, p.744-765, Mar. 1998) Most prior works on space-time code design have considered quasi-static fading channels. We extend our earlier work on algebraic space-time coding to block-fading channels. First, we present baseband design criteria for space-time codes in multi-input multi-output (MIMO) block-fading channels that encompass as special cases the quasi-static and fast fading design rules. The diversity advantage baseband criterion is then translated into binary rank criteria for phase shift keying (PSK) modulated codes. Based on these binary criteria, we construct algebraic space-time codes that exploit the spatial and temporal diversity available in MIMO block-fading channels. We also introduce the notion of universal space-time codes as a generalization of the smart-greedy design rule. As a part of this work, we establish another result that is important in its own right: we generalize the full diversity space-time code constructions for quasi-static channels to allow for higher rate codes at the expense of minimal reductions in the diversity advantage. Finally, we present simulation results that demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed codes.