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The marine safety considerations of the movement by sea of Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) oil from Valdez, Alaska to the "lower 48" include all of the interacting elements of the marine transportation system. The Coast Guard involvement has included safety considerations at terminal locations and approaches, and along the sea route as well as design, construction, manning, and operation of nearly all of the tankers scheduled to be used in the TAPS trade. Vessel traffic services have been established to assist traffic, including TAPS tankers at Valdez, Puget Sound and San Francisco. Currently, the State licensed pilotage service at Los Angeles/Long Beach operates reporting and information facilities used by the individual pilots to monitor vessel traffic. Traffic separation schemes are utilized in the approaches to the ports used by the TAPS tankers. Nationally recommended tracks are established offshore. Together with the recently completed west coast Loran-C (Long Range Aids to Navigation) stations which provide the mariner an additional navigation system, the Coast Guard has provided the TAPS tanker fleet with an essential group of marine safety programs.