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This paper describes a novel plasma diagnostic technique which utilizes the Raman scattering of a laser beam from a plasma. Qualitative information on the molecular and ionic species present in a plasma can be obtained by detecting the Raman spectra. Further information on the density and temperature of individual plasma species can be determined by measuring the relative intensities of the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman lines. The theory correlating the Raman intensity with the specie density and temperature is presented along with preliminary experimental results. The applicability of this technique in connection with various types of plasmas is shown.