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Symbiosis between a terrestrial-based integrated services digital network (ISDN) and a digital satellite network (DSN) is investigated in this paper. The characteristics of the two networks and the types of traffic carried are first reviewed. Key technical issues that are likely to arise when these two networks are interconnected are then identified and examined in depth. Examples are the processing of voice and nonvoice traffic, efficient handling of synchronous and asynchronous traffic, and the plesiochronous interconnection of ISDN's via a DSN. Measures that may be adopted in each network to accelerate the symbiosis are identified. Finally, a somewhat speculative look at the potential competition between the ISDN and the DSN in two important communication service areas is offered.