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A new sporadic layer providing VLF propagation

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3 Author(s)
Ortner, J. ; Kiruna Geophys. Observatory of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Kiruna, Sweden ; Egeland, A. ; Hultqvist, B.

During two periods in May and July, I959, following strong solar flares, the signal strength of receptions at Kiruna of VLF transmissions from Rugby (16 kc) showed no or only slight diurnal variation. It is proposed that the change of the diurnal variation is due to the production by solar protons of an ionized layer very deep in the atmosphere, the electron density of which is sufficient for reflection of very long waves but too low to cause measurable nondeviative absorption in the HF band at geomagnetic latitudes lower than approximately 60\deg .

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Antennas and Propagation, IRE Transactions on  (Volume:8 ,  Issue: 6 )