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A theory is presented indicating that the scintillation fading may be attributed to the incoherent scattering of microwaves by atmospheric irregularities in mass motion at an average velocity. By use of the perturbation theory, the resultant of scattered fields at the receiver is calculated which, on account of the interference with the direct wave, gives rise to the received field oscillating rapidly with small amplitudes around a mean level. Account is taken of the directivity of transmitting and receiving antennas which facilitates the calculation of received field, and also of the Doppler effect due to the translational mass motion of turbulent eddies. Agreement with experimental results is satisfactory.