Skip to Main Content
A model of one-way transmission of microwave electromagnetic signals over the ocean surface is developed from experiment. The received signal is described as a vector sum of a constant direct signal, a coherent reflected signal, whose amplitude and phase are fixed by geometry and sea state, and a fluctuating reflected component of random amplitude and phase. By interpreting experimental data in the light of this phenomenological model it has been possible to relate, quantitatively, the coherent and incoherent reflected signal and total signal to geometry and sea state. The results give support to the theoretical expression previously derived by Ament and others relating the coherent reflected signal to "apparent ocean roughness." In addition, the general shape of the curve relating the incoherent scattering to "apparent ocean roughness" has been established and its asymptotic value found.