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Spatial spectral estimation using multiple beam antennas

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2 Author(s)
Mayhan, Joseph T. ; Lincoln Lab., MIT, Lexington, MA, USA ; Niro, L.

The processing simplifications which result in using a multiple beam antenna (MBA) as a spatial sensor for performing spectral estimation are considered. Sources are presumed to be located over a two-dimensional field of view characterized by the two angular coordinatesthetaandphi. The MBA configuration consists of an aperture (usually either a reflector or lens) illuminated by a collection of feeds located in its focal plane (see Fig. 1), followed by a switch network for selecting the outputs of any desired feed port. Using the MBA as the spatial sensor for performing spectral estimation, as contrasted to the array antenna configuration, has a distinct advantage: for a given collection of source wavefronts incident on the aperture, a crude estimate of each source position is obtained simply by monitoring the power output of each feed port. This is to be contrasted to the array configuration, where the average output power of each element port is the same, so long as the wavefronts incident on the aperture emanate from uncorrelated sources. As shall be developed further, this initial crude estimate of source location can be used to develop refined estimates using processing algorithms which significantly reduce processing requirements when compared to those required using a comparable array when the number of anticipated sources existing over the field of view (FOV) is large. Finally, since the spectral estimate of the source location is essentially an "open-loop" estimate, involving a priori measured quantities such as the antenna port radiation patterns, we consider the effects of measurement errors on the estimate. The results are normalized so as to be generally applicable to both the array antenna configuration as well as for the MBA.

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:35 ,  Issue: 8 )