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Criteria for nearly omnidirectional radiation patterns for printed antennas

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3 Author(s)
Alexopoulos, N. ; University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA ; Jackson, D.R. ; Katehi, P.

Radiation from printed antennas is investigated with emphasis placed on producing \bar{E} - and \bar{H} -plane radiation patterns that are as nearly omnidirectional as possible. This is achieved using criteria which are derived for a nonzero radiation field extending down to the layer surface (radiation into the horizon). It is determined that this phenomenon arises when a surface wave pole coincides with a branch point in the complex plane. A simple ray optics interpretation is given for the phenomenon, and graphs are presented to easily enable design of printed antenna geometry to achieve nearly omnidirectional \bar{E} - or \bar{H} -plane patterns.

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:33 ,  Issue: 2 )