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It is shown that the aperture efficiency of a classical Cassegrain antenna can be considerably improved if the radiation pattern of the feed is optimally shaped. The corresponding optimum field distribution Over the aperture of the feed consists of a circular main lobe which is surrounded by concentric sidelobe rings. This optimum field distribution with one sidelobe ring included is realized by shaping of a dielectric lens which is positioned in the aperture of a corrugated horn antenna. The design can provide a theoretical aperture efficiency of 90.5 percent when subreflector diffraction and aperture shadowing are neglected, i.e., an improvement of 0.4 dB compared to an optimum conventional feed. Measurements of a model at 22.8 GHz gave a practical result of 85.6 percent. If the model is used to feed a 30 m radiotelescope the overall antenna efficiency becomes about 71 percent.
Date of Publication: Oct 1984