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Radar scattering laws for the lunar surface

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2 Author(s)
Simpson, R.A. ; Center for Radar Astronomy, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, USA ; Tyler, G.

Bistatic radar observations of quasi-specular scatter from the lunar surface at 13 and 116 cm wavelengths have been expressed in terres of the probability densities of the underlying surface slope distributions. These show best agreement with a Hagfors scattering function, althongh other forms having predominantly Gaussian or exponential characteristics also occur. Estimates of root mean square (rms) surface slope derived from these function range from4degrms in maria to at least8degrms in highlands. These are values appropriate to 25 m horizontal scales and represent averages over tens of square kilometers of surface area. The effective scattering roughness varies with wavelength, most strongly in maria, where its behavior is consistent with that expected from an immature, i.e., unsaturated cratered surface. There is very little variation in scattering roughness with wavelength in highlands areas.

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:30 ,  Issue: 3 )