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Employing a variable coordinate system associated with the local features of two-dimensionally rough surfaces with arbitrary slope, full-wave solutions are derived for the depolarization of the scattered radiation fields. An outline of the analytical procedures used in the derivations of the solutions are presented. Furthermore, the engineer who is not familiar with them can also use the final result which is expressed as a definite integral whose integrand is given explicitly and in closed form. These full-wave solutions are compared with the quasi-optics solution and the iterative or perturbational solutions for slightly rough surfaces, and they are shown to bridge the wide gap that exists between them. The full-wave solutions are consistent with energy conservation, duality, and reciprocity relationships in electromagnetic theory. These solutions account for upward and downward scattering of the incident waves with respect to the horizontal reference plane, thus shadowing and multiple scattering are considered. Applications to two-dimensionally periodic structures and random rough surfaces are also presented. The fullwave solutions are examined for Brewster, grazing, and specular angles and backscatter. Special consideration is also given to good conducting boundaries.