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A unique set of radiometer measurements is presented, recorded during a 1000-h day and night monitoring of irrigated fields from fully saturated to completely dry. Radiometer measurements were recorded at 2.8-cm ( -band) and 21.4-cm ( -band) wavelengths for a range of incident angles from nadir to . Soil moisture and soil temperature profile measurements were recorded to a depth of 15 cm. The test site was located in east-central Texas on a clay soil (Miller clay). Three bare-surface plots were used, each having a distinctly different surface roughness. Vegetated plots were also measured. The data quantify the sensitivity of microwave radiometer measurements to soil moisture variations, the effect of surface roughness on the measurement, and the influence of surface vegetation.