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It is pointed out that the electronics industry long a heavy contributor to automation in other industries, has until recently been in the role, one might say, of the cobbler's son who goes barefoot. Bast and future expansion of the electronics industry is charted, as it is estimated that an all-out national emergency would demand an output of 10 times our present production rate. Automation is posed as a solution to this dilemma; as well as an aid to uniformity, miniaturization, conservation, quality, and reliability. Changing production requirements are cited. It is also emphasized that the product, the process, or both must be completly changed in order to make automatic production feasible. Two automation approaches are discussed: that of the component-parts manufacturer, and that of the equipment assembler. Three machines are described: a simple bench-type individual-insertion machine, a fully-automatic in-line insertion machine, and an automatic forced-area dip-soldering machine. Assembly efficiency of the in-line machine is charted in detail (for early 1956 operation). A 7½ % rework rate is quoted without insertion inspection, and a 0.07 % rate with insertion inspection. The need for greater reliability is stressed, and attainment of this greater reliability through automatic assembly anti automatic test is treated at some length. In conclusion, the author admits that the present state of the art leaves much to be desired, as we build new machines and modify our products for mass-production suitability. Yet high hopes are expressed that much simpler quality-control procedures and ranch more uniform products will give considerably more reliable equipment in the field-- and this, in the not too distant future.