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In the last few years the use of small accelerators for ion implantation has been firmly established as an important manufacturing process in the fabrication of microelectronic devices and circuits. Before 1968 the only machines available for implantation were those designed originally for nuclear research, isotope separation, or neutron generation and adapted for implantation purposes. Since then, equipment has evolved to meet the specific needs of commercial applications. This paper discusses certain accelerator components where the changes have been most pronounced.