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The history of microwave communications includes major discoveries of Morse, Maxwell, Hertz, Marconi, and other pioneers of the radio and electronics fields. This paper traces the early work which led to wireless communications and the long struggle to achieve practical microwave radio. Even though the first microwave line-of-sight systems were demonstrated and placed in service during the 1930's, it was not until the late 1940's and early 1950's that huge transcontinental microwave transmission systems were implemented. The 1960's and 1970's witnessed significant progress in the technology and application of line-of-sight microwave communication systems. Other microwave systems including troposcatter, satellite, and millimeter waveguide transmission systems were also developed during the 1960's and 1970's. The past 100 years have witnessed very significant breakthroughs in radio technology, particularly at microwave frequencies, that have had an enormous impact on the world's societies through improved communications for the populace, business, and governments.