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The cataractogenic effects of near-zone 2450-MHz radiation in rabbits are presented. The power deposition pattern inside the eyes and head of rabbits has been determined using a thermocouple technique. It was found that a peak absorption of 0.92 W/kg occurred between the lens of the eye and the retina for each milliwatt/square centimeter incident. Time and power-density studies indicated a cataractogenic threshold of a 150-mW/cm2 incident, or 138-W/kg peak absorption behind the lens for 100 min. The threshold time decreased with increasing power density. Agreement between in vivo intraocular temperature measurements and finite-element computer predictions reinforces the suggestion of a thermal mechanism for microwave-induced lens opacities.