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Classical approaches to QoS provisioning in IP networks are difficult to apply in all-optical networks. This is mainly because there is no optical counterpart to the store-and-forward model that mandates the use of buffers for queuing packets during contention for bandwidth in electronic packet switches. Since plain IP assumes a best effort service model, there is a need to devise mechanisms for QoS provisioning in IP over wavelength-division multiplexing networks. Such mechanisms must consider the physical characteristics and limitations of the optical domain. This article presents a classification and survey of proposals for QoS provisioning and enforcement in IP-over-WDM networks. The different QoS proposals surveyed cover three major optical switching methods: wavelength routing, optical packet switching, and optical burst switching.