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Neuromusculoskeletal control systems modeling--A critical survey of recent developments

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1 Author(s)
Hatze, H. ; National Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa

The structure is discussed of current models of the executor (skeletal), myoactuator (muscular), and controller (neural) subsystems of the human neuromusculoskeletal control system. It is demonstrated that disregard of the highly nonlinear internal dynamics of skeletal muscle leads to physiologically unrealistic model predictions. In addition, it ts shown that current experimental methods used to verify hypotheses concerning the indeterminacy problem are too insensitive to permit definite conclusions. Finally, a more realistic approach to the modeling of neuromuscloskeletal control systems is indicated, and specific topics for further research are suggested.

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Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:25 ,  Issue: 3 )