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A time-of-arrival (ToA)-based ranging scheme using an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio link is proposed. This ranging scheme implements a search algorithm for the detection of a direct path signal in the presence of dense multipath, utilizing generalized maximum-likelihood (GML) estimation. Models for critical parameters in the algorithm are based on statistical analysis of propagation data and the algorithm is tested on another independent set of propagation measurements. The proposed UWB ranging system uses a correlator and a parallel sampler with a high-speed measurement capability in each transceiver to accomplish two-way ranging between them in the absence of a common clock.