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The generalization of gain adaptation to vector quantization (VQ) is explored in this paper and a comprehensive examination of alternative techniques is presented. We introduce a class of adaptive vector quantizers that can dynamically adjust the "gain" or amplitude scale of code vectors according to the input signal level. The encoder uses a gain estimator to determine a suitable normalization of each input vector prior to VQ encoding. The normalized vectors have reduced dynamic range and can then be more efficiently coded. At the receiver, the VQ decoder output is multiplied by the estimated gain. Both forward and backward adaptation are considered and several different gain estimators are compared and evaluated. Gain-adaptive VQ can be used alone for "vector PCM" coding (i.e., direct waveform VQ) or as a building block in other vector coding schemes. The design algorithm for generating the appropriate gain-normalized VQ codebook is introduced. When applied to speech coding, gain-adaptive VQ achieves significant performance improvement over fixed VQ with a negligible increase in complexity.
Date of Publication: Sep 1987