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The following is a survey of the technical literature on adaptive coding of imagery. Section 1 briefly discusses the general problem of image data compression. The optimum image data compression system, from a theoretical viewpoint, is presented in Section 1.1. The theoretical and the implementational problems of the optimum system are discussed and the assumptions that are made to overcome these problems are outlined. One important assumption is the stationarity which is not true for most imagery. In adaptive systems the parameters are varied according to changes in signal statistics optimizing the system performance for nonstationary signals. In this article the adaptive systems are divided to four categories. Section 2 is a survey of adaptive transform coding systems. Section 3 discusses adaptive predictive coding systems. Sections 4 and 5 discuss adaptive cluster coding and adaptive entropy technique, respectively.