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This paper presents fast and simple algorithms for directly constructing force-closure grasps based on the shape of the grasped object. The synthesis of force-closure grasps constructs independent regions of contact for the fingertips, such that the motion of the grasped object is totally constrained. A force-closure grasp implies equilibrium grasps exist. In the reverse direction, we prove that non-marginal equilibrium grasps with at least two soft-finger contacts, or three hard-finger contacts with friction are also force-closure grasps.