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Previous descriptions of class E amplifiers and frequency multipliers have required a radio frequency choke between the dc power supply and the active device "switch." In this paper, it is shown that class E operation may be maintained with the RF choke replaced by a smaller reactance. The analysis technique used is similar to that used by Raab in his description of class E amplifiers in that the equations describing circuit operation are obtained from Fourier series methods and the assumption of an infinite output network . The equations so obtained are used to determine (1) optimum operation (maximum power output capability at 100-percent efficiency) at any harmonic and (2) design equations that yield the requisite component values for optimum operation. The equations show that class E circuits may be configured to accommodate devices with arbitrary output capacitance and that class E amplifiers may be configured to provide greater power output capability than can be obtained using an RF choke design. Class E circuits with moderate values of output network were constructed and tested. The measured performance of these experimental circuits shows excellent agreement with the theoretical performance predicted by the equations.