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In this paper, the theory of uniform DFT, parallel, quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks is developed. The QMF equations, i.e., equations that need to be satisfied for exact reconstruction of the input signal, are derived. The concept of decimated filters is introduced, and structures for both analysis and synthesis banks are derived using this concept. The QMF equations, as well as closed-form expressions for the synthesis filters needed for exact reconstruction of the input signal , are also derived using this concept. In general, the reconstructed. signal suffers from three errors: aliasing, amplitude distortion, and phase distortion. Conditions for exact reconstruction (i.e., all three distortions are zero, and is equal to a delayed version of of the input signal are derived in terms of the decimated filters. Aliasing distortion can always be completely canceled. Once aliasing is canceled, it is possible to completely eliminate amplitude distortion (if suitable IIR filters are employed) and completely eliminate phase distortion (if suitable FIR filters are employed). However, complete elimination of all three errors is possible only with some simple, pathalogical stable filter transfer functions. In general, once aliasing is canceled, the other distortions can be minimized rather than completely eliminated. Algorithms for this are presented. The properties of FIR filter banks are then investigated. Several aspects of IIR filter banks are also studied using the same framework.