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This paper presents the reliability test results for LD modules, optical couplers, and APD modules, which are fabricated through methods for achieving and assuring a high degree of reliability for use in 400-Mbit/s submarine optical fiber transmission systems. In particular, the paper presents methods for evaluating the optical component reliability as well as an investigation into the degradation factors in the coupling circuits. From the reliability test results obtained, the paper also discusses the mechanism and test acceleration of wear-out degradation following reliability tests conducted for more than 8000 h on the fabricated optical components. These optical components are consequently confirmed to be highly reliable for a system life of 25 years.