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High-speed and long-distance transmission characteristics have been examined at 1.2, 2, and 4 Gbit/s, employing mesa structure DFB-DC-PBH LD transmitters and planar InGaAs APD receivers. High receiver sensitivities, -40 dBm at 1.2 Gbit/s, -37.4 dBm at 2 Gbit/s and -32.4 dBm at 4 Gbit/s, have been obtained employing high-speed and low noise InGaAs APD/FET receiver circuits. Long-span transmissions, 1.2-Gbit/s 170-km, 2-Gbit/s 141-km, and 4- Gbit/s 120-km at 1.55 μm, and 4-Gbit/s 74-km at 1.3 μm, have been performed. Power penalties caused by the LD wavelength chirping in the 1.5- μm wavelength region and error rate flooring caused by the LD side-mode oscillation in the 1.3- μm wavelength region are discussed. The transmission length is limited not only by the DFB LD wavelength chirping but also by the two-mode oscillation, which was observed at the pulse leading edge when LD bias current was near the threshold current. From the 1.3 μm wavelength 4-Gbit/s experiment, it was found that the pattern effect of the side-mode oscillation caused the error rate floor, when the LD bias current is set near the threshold current, and that the error rate floor disappeared when the bias current is set slightly above the threshold.