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Standard first-generation single-mode fibers are optimized for operation at a wavelength of 1.3 μm, where they exhibit zero dispersion. By modifying the fiber design it is possible to shift the zero dispersion wavelength to 1.55 μm, where the lowest losses occur in silica-based fibers. Advanced fiber structures can also be designed such that relatively flat dispersion spectra can be achieved over a wide range of wavelengths. In this paper, the theoretical and practical attempts to develop advanced fiber designs have been reviewed.