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The various types of electroluminescence are discussed, with particular reference to the luminescence efficiency, and the materials in which electroluminescence has been observed are listed, Semiconductor lasers operating with electroluminescent, cathodoluminescent, or photoluminescent excitation, and some of the pertinent materials and operating parameters, are reviewed. All known semiconductor lasers are listed. Such devices are useful for a variety of applications, particularly if emission in the infrared region and operation at low temperatures is feasible. On the other hand, highly efficient visible electroluminescence or coherent emission has not been observed from any semiconductor at room temperature to date.