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This paper describes a theory for a semiconductor active medium interacting with a laser field. In a semiconductor laser, the charge carrier transitions are inhomogenously broadened, and electron-electron and electron-phonon collisions tend to dephase the laser transitions and maintain thermal equilibrium among the carriers. These properties cause semiconductor lasers to frequency tune as though they are inhomogeneously broadened and to saturate as though they are homogeneously broadened. A theory that contains these two aspects of semiconductor laser behavior is presented. From it, we are able to calculate the loaded gain, efficiency, intensity, and carrier-induced refractive index of a semiconductor active medium.