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The photorefractive effect in titanium indiffused lithium niobate optical directional couplers at 1.3 µm

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4 Author(s)

In titanium indiffused lithium niobate directional couplers, photorefractive damage is seen at a wavelength of 1.3 μm when power levels in the guide exceed 25 mW ( 5 \times 10^{4} W/cm2) with time constants on the order of 100 h. Damage is not observed at lower power levels. Using a theoretical model based on the coupled wave equations and extrapolating the high power results, no significant degradation in performance is predicted for devices with less than 5 mW coupled into the waveguide.

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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:22 ,  Issue: 6 )