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The development of a theory of four-wave mixing in photo-refractive crystals is described. This theory is solved in the undepleted pumps approximation with linear absorption and without using the undepleted pumps approximation for negligible absorption. Both the transmission and reflection gratings are treated individually. The results are used to analyze several photorefractive phase conjugate mirrors, yielding reflectivities and thresholds. The use of photorefractive crystals as optical distortion correction elements and experimental demonstrations of several of the passive phase conjugate mirrors are described.