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Gyroscope couplers with three input ports and two output ports which can be implemented in a planar geometry are studied theoretically. Using a local normal mode description in the approximation of coupled mode theory, analytic output power expressions are obtained for the 3 × 2 branching waveguide coupler and the 3 × 2 directional waveguide coupler. When optimized, these devices behave identically to each other and to the three-dimensional 3 × 3 coupler  from which they are derived.
Date of Publication: October 1982