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Wavelength dispersion characteristics of single-mode silica fibers in a very low-loss region, including zero dispersion wavelengths, are studied in detail using a "difference method." Wavelength dispersion of single-mode fibers is compared for fibers with same material dispersion but with different waveguide structure. Material dispersion is evaluated by extracting waveguide dispersion from experimental results. Effects of waveguide dispersion on the zero dispersion wavelength of the single-mode fiber in a longer wavelength region are clearly analyzed. Single-mode fiber design consideration is given from the wavelength dispersion point of view.