Optical-fiber transmission experiments in the 1.3-μm wavelength region are reported. GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure semiconductor laser emitting at 1.293 μm is modulated directly in nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) codes at digit rates tanging from 100 Mbit/s to 1.2 Gbit/s. Its output is transmitted through low-loss GeO2-doped single-mode silica fibers in 11-km lengths. Transmitted optical signals are detected by a high-speed Ge avalanche photodiode. Overall loss of the 11-km optical fibers, including 11 splices, is 15.5 dB at 1.3 μm. Average received optical power levels necessary for 10-9error rate are -39.9 dBm at 100 Mbit/s and -29.1 dBm at 1.2 Gbit/s. In the present system configuration, the repeater spacing is limited by loss rather than dispersion. It seems feasible that a more than 30 km repeater spacing at 100 Mbit/s and a more than 20 km even at 1.2 Gbit/s can be realized with low-loss silica fiber cables, whose loss is less than 1 dB/km. Distinctive features and problems associated with this experimental system and constituent devices are discussed.