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With the services that autonomous robots are to provide becoming more demanding, the states that the robots have to estimate become more complex. In this paper, we develop and analyze a probabilistic, vision-based state estimation method for individual autonomous robots. This method enables a team of mobile robots to estimate their joint positions in a known environment and track the positions of autonomously moving objects. The state estimators of different robots cooperate to increase the accuracy and reliability of the estimation process. This cooperation between the robots enables them to track temporarily occluded objects and to faster recover their position after they have lost track of it. The method is empirically validated based on experiments with a team of physical robots.