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Factors affecting the sensitivity of gamma-level ring-core magnetometers

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3 Author(s)
Gordon, D.I. ; U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD, USA ; Lundsten, R.H. ; Chiarodo, R.

A theoretical and experimental analysis has been made of the geometrical and magnetic factors affecting the sensitivity of the ring-core magnetometer first introduced by Geyger in 1961. Using a drive-to-pickup transfer function derived from an assumed dynamic hysteresis loop and a given dc input signal, the second-harmonic output voltage was derived for both current-source and voltage-source driving conditions. Results of the analysis, which were confirmed by experiment, show the following. 1) When a single, diametrically wound (solenoid-type) pickup winding is used with a ring-core sensor, simultaneous minimization of both fundamental and second-harmonic feedthrough can be achieved by a simple rotational adjustment. This optimization is possible only with a circular core. 2) Sensitivity can be increased by increasing frequency, number of pickup turns, dynamic differential permeability, cross-sectional area, and effective sensor length, and by decreasing the dc initial permeability (μ0). 3) The dominant factor affecting the sensitivity is the demagnetizing term \mu_{0}K = \mu_{0}l^{-1.72} (4A/\pi)^{0.86} , which determines the entrance attenuation of the dc signal to be measured. Highest sensitivity is obtained when \mu_{0}K is small, which requires a low initial permeability, since a large dimensional ratio l/A^{1/2} is usually not attainable. When the demagnetizing term is not small, the sensitivity advantages of the other factors are negated by the input signal attenuation. Power considerations show that increasing sensitivity by raising area, length, or frequency results in increased power consumption. However, increasing sensitivity by using a pickup coil with a larger number of turns or by a sensor core with lower initial permeability can be achieved without additional power.

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Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:1 ,  Issue: 4 )