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In this paper, we present a new methodology for analysis of all-optical fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (FO-CDMA) networks. In this analysis, we propose statistical models, based on photon-counting techniques, for some basic elements of the network, such as splitters, combiners, star couplers, and FO-CDMA passive encoders/decoders. By following the statistical variation of the photon-count of the string of pulses that constitutes the address sequence in an FO-CDMA network, we will be able to reveal the quantum-limited optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) required at the transmitter output to meet the performance limits. Moreover, considering receiver thermal noise and source extinction ratio, we explore the role of using an optical preamplifier before the detector and the dependence of the performance on the transmitted power and the weight of the employed optical orthogonal codes (OOCs).