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Optimum radar resolution is recognized to be a problem in distinguishing between different possible target configurations. Radar reception systems which perform optimum range resolution are then designed using the principles of statistical decision theory. In particular, the design of the optimum resolution system is carried out for a squared-error loss function, modified to provide extra penalties for wrong guesses about the number of targets present. Such a system is capable of simultaneously deciding the number of targets present, their spatial positions (ranges) and their relative amplitudes. The analysis also includes a discussion of an optimum device for the resolution of distributed (clutter-like) targets.